Solar Activity, Solar Irradiance and Earth’s Temperature
Last week I published a new paper, using the real ephemeris of the daily Earth-Sun distances, confirming that the results reported in our paper Zharkova et al, 2019 are correct after all.
The results clearly show that in spite the Earth maintaining a well stable elliptic orbit about the barycentre, the Sun’s position is shifting towards the spring equinox. This leads to a reduction of the daily Sun-Earth distances by 0.016 au in January-June in the millennia 600-2600 and the similar increase in July-December in the millennia 600-2600 that was only hinted in the first paragraph of the last section of the paper by Zharkova et at., 2018.
The variations of daily solar irradiance during sampled years of two millennia caused by these variations of S-E distances are also presented, which reveal the increase of the aggravated solar input to the Earth by 1.2 W/m^ if averaged monthly irradiance for year is considered that is increased up to 20-25 W/m^2 if the daily variations for the whole year are considered. This solar input is shown to be a significant contribution to the growth of the baseline terrestrial temperature.
Moreover, it appeared that the shortest and longest Sun-Earth distances are shifted in millennium 1600-2600 from 21 December to 12 January and from 21 June towards 12 July that explains the reported ascending magnitudes of the magnetic field baseline reported for the current Hallstatt cycle by Zharkova et al, 2019.
These results prove that our paper Zharkova et al, 2019 was retracted without any grounds.
Read below the preprint paper and the Appendices, which use the real ephemeris of the S-E distances.
Appendix 1 – S-E distances from the ephemeris